Psychosocial effects in the workplace are also known to influence stress levels of workers. Research indicates that low control over work and rising demands increase stress, and that supportive work conditions help to reduce stress symptoms (Beechey & Perkins, 1987). The gendered work environments that exist in various female dominated occupations also brings about women’s stress; discrimination against women, male-dominated organizational cultures, and prejudice and sex stereotyping in workplaces have all been considered as factors that increase stress symptoms of women.
According to the literature, the trends in women’s employment, and what is widely known about women’s working conditions in consumer services sector and retail trade we posit that part-time and official duties can have significant occupational health effects for women workers. This paper first explore the symptoms of stress that are reported by women workers as well as the discussion of the working conditions (job behaviors, psychosocial and gendered work environments) in part-time and officials jobs that affect women workers’ stress (Beechey & Perkins, 1987). There are also physical and emotional problems that women identified as an outcome of work-related stress.
The twentieth century witnessed memorable reduction in the number and rate of occupational fatalities and injuries. However, several preventable injuries and deaths still occur. Barriers and obstacles to progress in occupational injury prevention are discussed, along with good strategies for overcoming them. In mining, the frequency of death has dramatically reduced over the century. The latest figures from the BLS show that about 6000 worker deaths from injury occurred in 2000 (Buchanan, 2000). Catastrophic events have prompted rising attention, and action on workplace hazards and risks, leading to sweeping changes, including new the common protective laws. Science based approaches to prevention have also contributed to progress. Multidisciplinary prevention and collaboration among injury prevention researchers, collaboration and cooperation among multiple sectors, have widely improved the relevance and application of injury prevention research and development.
Several OSHA standards for regulating workplace dangers contain requirements for worker training to decrease risk factors for diseases and injury. Other standard restricts certain jobs to workers considered competent by virtue of special training and practice [Cohen and Colligan 1998]. However, the documented results of occupational health and safety training are varied and inconclusive. Moreover, the currently proposed OSHA Health Program Rule and Occupational Safety redirect compliance audits to training results and consequences (Buchanan, 2000). Given this shift in priority, research will be needed to identify some important strategies for improving the measurable performance of mandated training and practice programs.
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